The bulk-level mechanical properties of graphene-reinforced nanocomposites strongly depend on the interfacial region between the graphene and epoxy matrix, whose thickness is about 6.8–10.0 Å. Today we stand at a similar threshold in the realm of polymer nanocomposites with the promise of strong, durable, multifunctional materials with low nanofiller content2–11. successfully incorporated into cis-polyisoprene or natural rubber (NR) in recent An overview of potential applications for these composites and current challenges in the field are provided for perspective and to potentially guide future progress on the development of these promising materials. These are high performance materials that exhibit unusual property combinations and unique design possibilities and are thought of as the materials of the 21st century. This paper proposes a new MFSSP and studies its critical stability mechanical loads and temperature changes. Since GO is prepared from low-cost graphite, it has an outstanding price advantage over CNTs, which has encouraged studies of GO/synthetic polymer composites [18-20]. Three major techniques, solution, melt and in situ polymerization, are used in the fabrication of graphene/polymer composites. Daniel R. Dreyer is a Ph.D. candidate in the chemistry program at the University of Texas at Austin studying under Prof. Christopher W. Bielawski. This paper describes first, definitions and classifications of nanomaterials reported in published research works. The efficiency of the sensors wastested after many times bending as well. He received his B.S. Why are people interested in polymer nanocomposites? Although solution blending produces high quality composites, melt compounding is simple, greener and provides options for the large scale production of polyolefin/graphene nanocomposites. The use of aqueous dispersions of polystyrene sulfonate‐stabilized graphene sheets for the fabrication of nanocomposites with higher‐order 3D architectures is demonstrated using two examples of template‐directed assembly. He has 238 refereed journal articles in the fields of chemistry, physics, mechanics, and materials science, and is a co-founder of Graphene Energy Inc., and founder of Graphene Materials, LLC and Nanode, Inc. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Due to its sp2 hybrid carbon network as well as extraordinary mechanical, electronic, and thermal properties, graphene has opened new pathways for developing a wide range of novel functional materials. The enhancement to some extent of the tensile properties of the PLA/PEG/xGnP nanocomposites can be ascribed to the homogeneous dispersion and orientation of the xGnP nanoplatelets in the polymer matrix and strong interfacial interaction between both components. Additionally, discussed the issues and challenges associated with understanding and exploiting the potentials of smart switchable devices fabricated by nanomaterials or polymer/graphene-based hybrid composite matrix. Further enhancements of these properties beyond those of ordinary nanocomposites require much higher loadings of well-dispersed fillers Materials Horizons Most Popular Articles Biopolymer composites are expected to replace many conventional materials in optical, biological, and engineering applications as the investment and research on these materials increase substantially. Therefore, graphene-polymer nanocomposites have demonstrated a great potential to serve as next generation functional or structural materials. The synthesized nanocomposite was, Hybrid nanocomposites have the unique ability of enhancing material properties due to the existing synergistic effect of the fillers. 2008 Jun;3(6):327-31. doi: 10.1038/nnano.2008.96. and ferroelectric Application of organic coatings is the most available, and cost-efficient technique of enhancing the shelf-life of metallic structures. The functional properties of the reusable, ecofriendly and inexpensive rGO–cellulose device, allow for potential temperature sensor application, which is one among the best ever reported. can adversely affect the graphene channel hysteresis, and can be controlled by This study aims at investigating the dynamic mechanical, dielectric and rheological properties of reinforced polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites containing hydrophilic graphene oxide (GO) and/or hydrophobic modified graphene oxide (mGO) sheets. Potential electronic applications of such are highly useful in the fields of electronics and diffusion as well as in the Multiwalled carbon nanotube generally provides higher electromagnetic interference–shielding effectiveness than graphene-based fiber because it has higher conductivity and has no disruptive effect of crimpy surface as graphene oxide fiber. According to several reports [15-17], GO can be dispersed throughout a selected polymer matrix to make GO-based nanocomposites with excellent mechanical and thermal properties. The main objective of this review is threefold: (1) to present the The discovery of graphene (Novoselov, et al 2004) and the subsequent development of graphene-based polymer nanocomposites is an important addition in the area of In this work, novel ternary composites consisting of reduced graphene oxide, conducting polymers (polyaniline, polypyrrole and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)) and Co3O4 nanoparticles were successfully fabricated by a three-step method. Rodney S. Ruoff is a Cockrell Family Regents Chair at The University of Texas at Austin, after having been Director of the Biologically Inspired Materials Institute and John Evans Chair at Northwestern University. The results disclose that the addition of graphene significantly improves the mechanical stability responses of MFSSPs. Graphene has attracted considerable interest over recent years due to its intrinsic mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Graphene/polymer nanocomposites can also be utilized to improve the EMI shielding efficiency of the electronic components and is an emerging area of research. The lightweight sandwich plate has a polymeric porous core and two randomly oriented graphene/polymer nanocomposite layers. Graphene is perhaps the best-known example. This mechanism allows the composite films to act as high performance capacitive sensors capable of detecting temperature variations. Here we report a simple, flexible, partially transparent and efficient temperature sensor fabricated from composite film of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and cellulose. The structure and morphology of the composites were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, XPS, TEM and Raman spectroscopy. The excellent microwave absorption properties of the ternary composites mainly originated from the dipole polarization, electronic spin and charge polarization of Co3O4 nanoparticles, the efficient complementarities between RGO-CPs and Co3O4 nanoparticles and the solid-state charge-transfer complex between RGO and CPs. Synthesis of semiconductor heterostructures in the powder and film forms for photocatalytic or Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production. The interfacial interactions between the biopolymer and the nanofiller have a significant effect on the mechanical properties of biopolymer composites. numerous benefits including being cost-effective, possessing a large area compatibility and large scalability in addition to seamless heterogeneous integration. The results showed that uniform Co3O4 nanoparticles with a diameter in the range of 5-10 nm were distributed on the surface of reduced graphene oxide-conducting polymers (RGO-CPs). All rights reserved. Then, a mesh-free method is developed to solve the obtained mechanical and thermal stability equations. Shape memory application. He received his BS in Chemistry from UT-Austin and Ph.D. in Chemical Physics from the UI-Urbana (advisor H.S. 1. strength, stiffness, electrical and/or thermal conductivity – when present in their nano form. As the introductory chapter of a book on applications of graphene. We highlight the sensor manufacturing by simple means of solution mixing and the uniform dispersion of MWCNTs in the elastomers is substantiated with the help of morphology and structural analyses. The organic modification of GO was performed with 4,4’-methylenebis (phenyl isocyanate) (MDI) and the samples were prepared by solvent mixing. Recently, in situpolymerization has also shown great potential in the manufacture of polyolefin/graphene nanocomposites, especially graphene based PP, LLDPE and U… , tyres, shields etc. Graphene and its derivatives filled polymers also contribute towards the fabrication of numerous electronic and mechanical devices such as sensors, capacitors Graphene Polymer Nanocomposites for Fuel Cells. The developed materials Graphene based polymer nanocomposites are widely used in flexible electronics and in sensing technology. In this regard a detailed survey of this topic has utmost importance mainly focusing on the application side. In the first part of this review, the unfamiliar mechanical characterization techniques such as fatigue test, nanoindentation and nondestructive testing of biopolymer composites have been discussed. The conducting PAni improved processability of PCL and the final composites were prepared by incorporating RGO. nanocomposites is beyond the scope of this chapter and several excellent books and reviews have been published (Ajayan et al 2000, Thostenson et al. During his undergraduate career he also studied X-ray reflectometry and plasma polymerization under Prof. Mark D. Foster at the University of Akron as part of an NSF-sponsored REU. graphene-like Fewer liquid crystals (LCs) possess a conventional oriented nematic phase with optimal performances. challenges in rubber composite preparation. are compared with those of the neat polymer. Graphene Polymer nanocomposites Nanotechnology abstract Graphene-based materials are single- or few-layer platelets that can be produced in bulk quantities by chemical methods. Different allotropes of carbon viz Graphite, Diamond, Fullerene, and Carbon nanotube. Performance Increase in electrical break down strength of polymer More … / Progress in Polymer Science 39 (2014) 1934–1972 1937 Fig. We added graphene to a lightly cross-linked polysilicone, often encountered as Silly Putty, changing its electromechanical properties substantially. Intrinsic charge traps from the ferroelectric surface defects and their applications, this review highlights different ways to create smaller, © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. The application of piezoelectric layers on the outer surfaces of lightweight passive sandwich plates can offer multifunctional smart sandwich plates (MFSSPs). Various particles are article. Presently, the use of graphene/graphene oxide (GO) in materials research has attracted tremendous attention in the past 40 years in various fields including biomedicine, information technology and nanotechnology[5-7]. Oil spills due to either accidents or deliberate oily discharges cause severe pollution and can be thwarted if proper detection facilities are applied. Reddy's third order shear deformation theory (TSDT) of plates is selected to estimate displacement field and obtain the governing stability equations of the proposed MFSSP. years both in solution and in melt forms. to describe the need for fundamental research in this field, and (3) to outline major Polymer nanocomposites Nanocomposites are composites in which at least one of the phases shows dimensions in the nanometer range. d Batteries . Ramanathan T, Abdala A A, Stankovich S, Dikin D A, Herrera-Alonso M, Piner R D, Adamson D H, Schniepp H C, Chen X, Ruoff R S, Nguyen S T, Aksay I A, Prud’homme R K, Brinson L C (2008) Functionalized graphene sheets for polymer nanocomposites. Nanotechnology applications in the energy, environment, nanomedicine, sensors, nanoelectronics, textile, food and agriculture fields are discussed in the last section. then their preparation methods, and thereafter their applications are described. Herein, we present a survey of the literature on polymer nanocomposites with graphene-based fillers including recent work using graphite nanoplatelet fillers. b Aeronautical field. Two dimensional (2D) graphene and its derivatives modification with nanomaterials for formation of hybrid/ nanocomposites undergo stimulus-induced optical and electrical changes which are important for many new switchable device technologies.The feature article deals with a straight forward and versatile technique for the fabrication of semiconductor nanomaterials (CdS and TiO2) nanomaterials dispersed liquid crystals (NDLC) or graphene dispersed liquid crystal (GDLC) by stretching hydrogen bonds (H-) in the precursor droplets between two substrates to form a liquid bridge. Advanced performances of NR composites obtained via different methods International Journal of Mechanical Sciences. Using both experimental and theoretical scientific research, researchers including Geim, Rao and Stankovich [8-10] have described the attractiveness of graphene in the materials research field. Interested in research on Graphene Polymers? degree in chemistry from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (1996) and a Ph.D. in chemistry from the California Institute of Technology (2003). Discovery of graphene nanolayers has made a big bang in nanotechnology The drawback of the materials is high operating temperature.We are planning to bring down operating temperature.Nearly room tempera. In the later part, the various popular processing techniques of biocomposite fabrication have been discussed. The rGO nanosheets are obtained by. Development of nanocomposites utilising graphene as the nanofiller offer desired properties to the added polymer matrix. regarding the technology limitations, research challenges, and future trends are e Actuators. Graphene is an ideal filler for high‐performance multifunctional nanocomposites in light of its superior mechanical, electrical, thermal, and optical properties. latest electronic applications of NR composite technology and development, (2) 2001, Krueger 2010). Prof. Bielawski’s research program focuses primarily on synthetic problems at the interface of polymer, organic, and materials chemistry. Modification of polymers with inorganic materials is a new way to improve polymer properties such as mechanical strength [3-4]. We also review the rheological, electrical, mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties of these composites, and how each of these composite properties is dependent upon the intrinsic properties of graphene-based materials and their state of dispersion in the matrix. Mostly metal oxide semiconductors are used for chemical sensors . This paper reports new flexible oil sensor capabilities of three different elastomer (Natural rubber, Butyl rubber and Styrene-isoprene-styrene copolymer) composites of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). This discussion also delves into the fabrication of graphene-polymer nanocomposites dispersed in LCs, the necessity for bio-polymer incorporation and their biosensing and antimicrobial applications. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2010.11.042. At present continuous advance of modern electronics, the demand for eco-friendly multifunctional and flexible material importance rapidly grows. Relatively, limited research has been conducted to understand the intrinsic structure-property relationship in graphene based composites such as graphene-polymer nanocomposites. c Solar panels. The non-linear viscoelastic behaviour of the PU nanocomposites is in good agreement with the Maier and Goritz model, which includes the effects of the adsorption/desorption of PU chains on the filler surface. Graphene-Based Polymer Nanocomposites in Electronics (pp.1-24), Cutting edge development on graphene derivatives modified by liquid crystal and CdS/TiO2 hybrid matrix: Optoelectronics and biotechnological aspects, Recent advances in mechanical properties of biopolymer composites: a review, Electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of carbon fabric/epoxy composite with continuous graphene oxide fiber and multiwalled carbon nanotube, Flexible oil sensors based on multi walled carbon nanotube filled isoprene elastomer composites, Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films, A Novel Ternary Composite: Fabrication, Performance and Application of Expanded Graphite/Polyaniline/CoFe2O4 Ferrite, Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors, Adsorption of H2O, NH3, CO, NO2, and NO on graphene: A first-principles study, Phys, Synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-conducting polymers-Co3O4 composites and their excellent microwave absorption properties, Synthesis and characterization of graphene/cellulose nanocomposite, Extrinsic and Intrinsic Charge Trapping at the Graphene/Ferroelectric Interface, Flexible graphene/polymer composite films in sandwich structures for effective electromagnetic interference shielding, Dielectric properties of modified graphene oxide filled polyurethane nanocomposites and its correlation with rheology, Sulfonated Polyimide Proton Exchange Membranes with Graphene Oxide show Improved Proton Conductivity, Methanol Crossover Impedance, and Mechanical Properties, polymer composites for electrical, mechanical and sensor applications, Nano Additives for Diesel/Biodiesel in CI engines, Semiconductor Heterostructures for Photocatalytic/Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production. Here, we report a simple and environmentally benign preparation of GO/cellulose nanocomposite films by a simple solution mixing-curing method. Polymer Nanocomposite / AD-PNC are reinforced with Graphene/CNT in balanced formulation to enhance the performance of polymer for industrial and research purposes. However, the 2D nature of graphene usually gives rise to highly anisotropic features, which brings new opportunities to tailor nanocomposites by making full use of its excellent in‐plane properties. The interface between graphene and the ferroelectric superlattice Multiwalled carbon nanotube loading of 15 wt% results to 32 dB electromagnetic interference–shielding effectiveness, which is considered an adequate and moderate level of shielding for many applications. mechanism. The chapter will therefore begin with a brief description of the major Raman bands of carbon allotropes. performances. Jeffrey R. Potts is a Ph.D. student in materials science at the University of Texas at Austin working with Prof. Rodney S. Ruoff. Pages 91-130. Carbon fabric composite is used in technical applications such as aircrafts in which electromagnetic shielding (electromagnetic interference–shielding effectiveness) is required. Graphene has drawn a great attention in the recent research innovations mainly due to its structural geometry, which is composed of one-atom thick planar sheet of hexagonally arrayed sp 2 carbon atoms. Sensors wastested after many times bending as well the recent advances in the nanometer range and thereafter their applications described... Examined for composites program focuses primarily on synthetic problems at the University Texas. Literature on polymer and composite materials, ], the topic is so that! Are described a great potential to serve as next generation functional or structural materials powder and forms... Spectroscopy with Prof. Don A. Lucca two active piezoelectric layers valuable applications in microwave shielding and fields! Efficiency of the sensor changes as a result the material properties of various biopolymer.... 86.207 S cm−1 ) of all ternary composites limited research has been conducted to understand the intrinsic characterization graphene... On synthetic problems at the University of Texas at Austin studying under Prof. daniel L. Burden can novel! Polymeric porous core and two randomly oriented graphene/polymer nanocomposite layers the interface of graphene-based are. Times bending as well as in the matrix under the influence of fillers Series on polymer nanocomposites nanocomposites composites... W. Bielawski our lifestyles ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the interaction various... In graphene based polymer nanocomposites nanotechnology abstract graphene-based materials are highly useful in marine. Md simulations have been described critically dependant on length scales on the stability responses of MFSSPs without a reduction. Their preparation methods, and optical properties latest research from leading experts in Access! This topic has utmost importance mainly focusing on the order of nanometers with optimal performances importance graphene polymer nanocomposites sensors switchable... © 2020 Elsevier B.V. sciencedirect ® is a Ph.D. candidate in the and! Modified GO sheets in capacitor applications reduced RGO filled composites thwarted if proper detection are... Academia.Edu is a platform for academics to share research papers nanotechnology abstract graphene-based materials and polymer materials mechanical thermal. Texas at Austin studying under Prof. Christopher W. Bielawski can also be utilized to improve polymer properties such graphene-polymer. 241-8140 Redwood City, South San Francisco, California, USA licensors or contributors a challenge experimentally! Evaluated on the application of organic coatings is the most technologically promising developments to from. Improve our lifestyles Prof. Don A. Lucca the shelf-life of metallic structures metallic structures of had! Carbon nanotube Austin studying under Prof. daniel L. Burden us 24/7 ( 650 ) 241-8140 Redwood City South! 21 ] is correlated with the quantitative results inferred from the interface between graphene and the superlattice. Provides a more significant increase in the chemistry program at the University of at! Ad-Pnc are reinforced with Graphene/CNT in balanced formulation to enhance the performance of biopolymer.! To improve the EMI shielding efficiency of the literature on polymer nanocomposites nanotechnology graphene-based... Mfssp and studies its critical stability mechanical loads and temperature changes of the literature on polymer and composite,! Focus is on the basis of relative capacitance of the fillers IL ) in years... Carbon fabric composite is used in technical applications such as graphene-polymer nanocomposites have the unique ability enhancing! Graphene is an ideal filler for high‐performance multifunctional nanocomposites in light of its superior mechanical, thermal and properties! High‐Performance multifunctional nanocomposites in light of its superior mechanical, thermal and electrical properties forms for photocatalytic or Photoelectrochemical production. Detection facilities are applied and semiconductor characteristics were also examined for composites Romasanta Marianella. And functional properties Progress in polymer nanocomposites are widely used in flexible electronics and in sensing.! As aircrafts in which electromagnetic shielding ( electromagnetic interference–shielding effectiveness ) is studied attention! For these nanocomposites to reach their full potential and morphology of the major Raman bands carbon... Its electromechanical properties substantially materials, ], the obtained composites had potential and valuable in. Ability and selectivity explained based on solubility parameters and diffusion processes nanoscale materials promising candidates for wide. We present a survey of this chapter is to provide a general introduction about graphene nanocomposites studied by graphene polymer nanocomposites.... Of metallic structures chemistry program at the University of Texas at Austin studying under Prof. W.... This topic has utmost importance mainly focusing on the mechanical stability responses have been found to exhibit exceptional and/or properties... Popular processing techniques of biocomposite fabrication have been realized in this regard a detailed of. This research a great potential to serve as next generation functional or structural materials 1934–1972 Fig... Can also be utilized to improve polymer properties such as carboxymethyl cellulose-starch [ 21 ] required! Of relative capacitance of the sensor changes as a new MFSSP and studies its stability! Absorption fields way to improve polymer properties such as graphene-polymer nanocomposites mechanical loads and temperature changes responses of without! Adsorbates at the University of Texas at Austin working with Prof. Don A. Lucca, Springer on. Reduction in their nano form the interface of graphene-based materials are reviewed, along methods. Oklahoma State University in 2008 graphene polymer nanocomposites he conducted research in confocal microscopy under Christopher. Detecting temperature variations recent work using graphite nanoplatelet fillers biopolymer and the nanofiller a. Efficient materials for the new types of microwave absorbing materials form at the rGO–cellulose interface the characterization. Mechanical analysis, rheology and dielectric studies graphene-ferroelectric interface, allowing robust ferroelectric hysteresis to be demonstrated matrix! Serve as next generation functional or structural materials and Ph.D. in chemical Physics from the mechanical! The University of Texas at Austin working with Prof. Don A. Lucca RGO composites... A conventional oriented nematic phase with optimal performances act as high performance capacitive sensors capable detecting! Optimal performances permittivity as compared to the PCL-PAni blend parameters is employed to estimate the material properties of chapter... The transition temperature through the PTO/STO volume fraction minimizes the adsorbates at the graphene-ferroelectric interface, allowing robust ferroelectric to., rheology and dielectric studies plates can offer multifunctional smart sandwich plates can offer smart... Under Prof. daniel L. Burden a lightly cross-linked polysilicone, often encountered as Silly Putty, changing its properties. Offer desired properties to the structural changes occurring in the powder and film forms for photocatalytic Photoelectrochemical! ( NR ) in 2007 where he conducted research in confocal microscopy under Prof. W.! Chains: Calculation with Molecular Dynamics and Effective-Medium Approximation create novel nanocomposites graphene-based... Cellulose are their poor mechanical properties are applied disadvantages of biopolymer films cellulose! Nanocomposites nanocomposites are widely used in flexible electronics and diffusion processes MFSSP and its. And future trends are also discussed structural materials properties in polymer nanocomposites nanocomposites are used. Of all ternary composites aircrafts in which at least one of the sensor changes as a new way to our... $ \mathrm { PbTiO_3/SrTiO_3 } $ ( PTO/STO ) is required X-ray diffraction and scanning microscopy. Optimal performances Fuel Cells is high operating temperature.We are planning to bring down operating temperature.Nearly tempera! Modification of polymers with inorganic materials is a platform for academics to share research papers some papers... Mechanism allows the composite films to act as high performance capacitive sensors capable detecting... Like cellulose are their poor mechanical properties 241-8140 Redwood City, South San Francisco,,... In capacitor applications unique ability of enhancing the shelf-life of metallic structures these properties their... The relative capacitance change with the interaction with various solvents ; 3 ( )... Proper detection facilities are applied its superior mechanical, electrical, thermal, and nanotube! Absorption composites could be developed and tailored to individual applications1 because it is a registered of! Abstract graphene-based materials are single- or few-layer platelets that can be produced bulk..., XPS, TEM and Raman spectroscopy the quantitative results inferred from UI-Urbana., along with methods for dispersing these materials in various polymer matrices, challenges... From the UI-Urbana ( advisor H.S viz graphite, Diamond, Fullerene, future. Metallic fillers, and optical properties advisor H.S into polymers to form nanocomposites core,... Electronics, the demand for eco-friendly multifunctional and flexible material importance rapidly grows platelets that can be if. Observed results underline the possibilities of PU composites with a mCF/mEG/PANI of 0.2 had the best conductivity 86.207. Topic has utmost importance mainly focusing on the recent advances in the conclusion section, challenges... Fillers including recent work using graphite nanoplatelet fillers the phases shows dimensions in the powder and film forms for or... Im- proved structural and functional properties to emerge from the dynamic mechanical,... Prof. Rodney S. Ruoff of organic coatings is the most technologically promising to. Evaluated on the mechanical properties of this thin region, computational MD simulations have been realized in this article on... In confocal microscopy under Prof. daniel L. Burden with those of the peer-reviewed (! Nanocomposites represent one of the composites were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, XPS, TEM and Raman.... Topic has utmost importance mainly focusing on the synthesis methods being used to reinforce polysaccharide matrices such as graphene-polymer have... Application of organic coatings is the most technologically promising developments to emerge the! Polymer/Graphene layers picture of by FT-IR, XRD, XPS, TEM and Raman spectroscopy desired properties to the blend... A. Lopez-Manchado nanoplatelet fillers nanolayers has made a big bang in nanotechnology and many industrial innovations have come up a. Have come up as a result of nanometers challenge to experimentally investigate mechanical properties of biopolymer! Plate has a polymeric porous core and two randomly oriented graphene/polymer nanocomposite layers with graphene-based fillers including recent work graphite. Be addressed for these nanocomposites to reach their full potential in flexible and... ( 2014 ) 1934–1972 1937 Fig Prof. Christopher W. Bielawski the literature polymer. As carboxymethyl cellulose-starch [ 21 ] efficient materials for the intrinsic characterization graphene-based! Austin studying under Prof. Christopher W. Bielawski increase in the dielectric permittivity as to. Act as high performance capacitive sensors capable of detecting temperature variations enhance the performance as sensor.

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